He has started to read this text book to understand the development of Hapsburg Spain the the era of the cardinal duke.
As the old political maxim says:
'Know the enemy better than he knows himself.'
Spain was the superpower of the 17th century, but was finally checked by the cunning long-term power-politics of Armand-Jean whose FRANCE finally came to question this Hispanic supremacy in the reign of the young sun-king Louis XIV, following Richelieu's own death in 1642.
While the palace and cité idéale of Richelieu were being created, the First Minister of France duelled with his opposite number in Madrid
the 'conde-duque' Olivares,
Minister to his master, Felipe IV, King of Spain.
|a detail from 'The surrender of Breda' by Diego Velázquez|
|Felipe IV, King of Spain|
|Don Gaspar de Guzmán y Pimentel Ribera y Velasco de Tovar|
the Count of Olivares
and Duke of San Lúcar la Mayor